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Showing posts from 2017


What is DRY EYE? Dry eye is a condition in which a person does not have enough quality tears to lubricate and nourish the eye.Tears are necessary to maintain clarity of the cornea and nourishes the front surface of the eye to ensure clear vision. Any anormaly in the integrity of the eyes tear film,the production or drainage can result in dry eye.This condition is often chronic and mostly affects the older adults.
The  lower and the upper eyelids mechanically spread over the ocular surface through neuronally controlled blinking mechanism to wet the corner and other ocular surfaces and exits through the nasolacrimal drainage system.then into the nose.
Tears provide lubrication,nourish ocular surface to reduce the risk of infections,wash away foreign substances that accidentally fall on the eye,keeps ocular surface smooth to allow clear vision.
What is the differences between dry eye and dry eye syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca )
dry eye is the general condition in which a person doe…

Computer Vision Syndrome

What is computer vision syndrome? Computer vision syndrome(Digital Eye Strain) is a group of eye and vision related problems that results from prolonged computer use.
Many individuals spend prolonged time on near tasks,than at far.this puts stress on the visual system resulting in many discomforts:Near Point World.This technological generation predisposes us to spend more time on screen(laptop,smartphones,tablets) than on manual tasks,the eye always under stress and forced to adapt to tasks beyond its threshold.The average teen in the United States spends more than nine hours daily on the media for entertainment(playing computer games,Facebook,movies and office Jobs),the average 13- year old checks the social media more than hundred times daily.Analytically,people spend more time on screen than time to sleep.Prolonged  stress on the eye and other organs of the body presents clinical Alerts for multiple causes;Fatigue,asthenopia  and drowsiness.

Computer Us…
ANISOCORIA (unequal pupil size) What is Anisocoria?
Anisocoria is simply when your eye's pupils are not the same (equal).
The pupil is an aperture created by the Iris; which dilates and constrict to regulate the amount of light entering the eye.This protect the retina(macula) from direct sunlight burns(UV trauma) that can blind the eye.
Anyone can have pupils that differ in size with no problem.In fact,epidemiologically,one out of five people have pupils that are normally of different sizes.Not withstanding the aforementioned,there may be  clinically cautions for a serious eye problems when seen.Namely;
*A Nervous system problem(tumor)
*A history of damage of the eye
*Risk of having stroke
*A viral infection
*Adie's tonic pupil(When one eye does not respond to light as well as the other pupil )
NOTE:Anisocoria is not a stand alone diagnosis ;A probe of the underlying cause(if organic ) with effective treatment  will automatically correct this condition.
People …

Eye Examination

Clinical Examination Of Ocular Surface disorders.
As Physicians,the code to perfect diagnosis and treatment depends on a bedrock of of a good HISTORY.
⚠️Remember:it's history,history,and history from beginning to the end to enable an accurate diagnosis.
An examination of the ocular surface needs to be systematic.A stepwise approach helps to ensure that important signs and symptoms are not missed.
Vision:start by assessing the the uncorrected visual acuity,pinhole and best corrected visual acuity.
Eyelids:examine the lid position and closure and check for entrepion(when eyelid turns in on itself),Trichiasis(lashes touching the eye) and lagophthalmos(a gap between between the upper and lower lid when the eyes are closed). Examine the lid margin and meibomian gland opening for abnormal positions,inflammations and plugging with secretions.Try to express the meibomian glands,using gentle pressure.
Tears:Assess the quality of the tear film by looking for discharges,debris and the tear m…

Embryology of the human Eye

The human eye anatomically is considered as an extension of the brain.the central nervous develop from the neural tube.A thickening appears on either sides of the neural tube in its anterior part known as OPTIC PLATE.The optic plate grows as the Foetus(baby) grows towards the surface to form the OPTIC VESICLE.the two eyes develop from these two optic vesicles.the neural ectoderm and mesoderm come together to form the optic vesicles.
As the foetus grows the optic visicles invaginates from in front and below to form the OPTIC CUP. there is a line of invagination that remains open  for sometime known as the embryonic fissure.the hyloid artery enters through the fissure to provide nutrients to the developing structures.later atrophies found dissapears.
The inner layer of the retina(main) is formed by the inner layer of the optic cup whiles the outer layer develops into the pigmented epithelium.the neural ectoderm is responsible for the secretion of the jelly-like fluid called the VITREOU…